Discuss the landmark contributions made in the development of the EHR.

week 1The Evolution of EHRs (graded)

Discuss the landmark contributions made in the development of the EHR.

(Include pioneers and describe their efforts.)

EHR Adoption (graded)

Discuss the common mistakes found in gaining clinician acceptance of change brought about by an EHR. Suggest strategy to gain clinician acceptance.

week 2

From Data to Decisions Using Electronic Health Records (graded)

Identify and describe the technology options, issues, and functionality associated with an EDMS.

EHR Applications and HIEs (graded)

Identify and describe EHR functionality for ambulatory care facilities, considering the key clinical processes performed and data needed in such a facility.

week 3

The Strategic Planning Process (graded)

Explain and des

EHR Project Management (graded)

Identify and describe the critical success factors for EHR planning and explain how they impact construction of a migration path.
cribe various strategic planning models and how they may apply in different settings.

week 4

IS Systems Theory and Needs Assessment (graded)

Define the concept of information theory and discuss why it is important to the design of an EHR.

Healthcare Process Assessment and Functional Needs Assessment (graded)

Identify the importance and scope of process assessment and the possible repercussions if there were no process assessment.

week 5

Data Infrastructure Assessment (graded)

Describe all the steps in the system development life cycle.

Information Technology and Systems Infrastructure Assessment (graded)

Understand the difference between the terms confidentiality, privacy, and security when referring to data in a healthcare setting.

week 6

EHR Selection and Contract Negotiation (graded)

Why is it important to plan in advance of starting an EHR vendor selection process? Please list and discuss the reasons.

EHR System Implementation and Ongoing Maintenance (graded)

Describe the importance of project planning and management in planning the implementation of an EHR.

Application Paper #1 is due this week.

Topic: Profile a health information exchange organization. Conduct a search of the Internet, consult professional journals or interview a professional in the field. Research the status of health information exchange implementation in your state. Connect your findings to course objectives. (approximately 2 typed pages)

Submit your assignment to the Dropbox located on the silver tab at the top of this page.

Application Paper #2

Topic: Research electronic health record functionality standards or certification. Write a paper describing how you would incorporate your findings into the EHR selection and decision-making process. Sources include the HL7 EHR Functional Model, CCHIT certification criteria and other organizations offering EHR certification. (approximately 2 typed pages)

Submit your assignment to the Dropbox located on the silver tab at the top of this page. For instructions on how to use the Dropbox, read these or watch thisTutorial

See the Syllabus section “Due Dates for Assignments & Exams” for due date informatio

ourse Project Outline is due this week.

·         Submit a 1 to 2 page outline with the researched references you will be using to write the Course Project.

·         Feedback on your topic selection and project outline will be provided by the instructor.

·         Submit Outline this week to the appropriate Dropbox.

The completed project is due by the end of Week 7. (required)

The length of the paper should be approximately 10-12 pages and must include a bibliography and footnotes.

The detailed Course Project guidelines and grading criteria can be found in the Course Project page in Course Home.

Submit your assignment to the Dropbox located on the silver tab at the top of this page

Research your chosen software’s functions and how it works, and critically analyze your findings.

Guidelines

Name of the productSpecifically, the paper should offer the following information and address these issues:

  • Uses of the product
  • Integration with other information systems
  • User friendliness of data entry and data retrieval
  • Benefits of this particular software over similar types of software
  • The implementation process you would use to implement the EHR
  • Critically analyze your findings

Other Content Suggestions:

  • Terminology
  • Philosophical views of the EHR
  • Advantages
    • Reduction of cost
    • Improved quality of care
    • Promote evidence-based medicine
    • Record keeping and mobility
  • Disadvantages
    • Costs
    • Time
  • Governance, privacy, and legal issues
    • Privacy concerns
    • Legal issues
      • Liability
      • Legal interoperability
    • Regulatory compliance
  • Technical Issues
    • Standards
      • Open specifications
      • Customization
    • Long-term preservation and storage of records
    • Synchronization of records
  • E-health and tele-radiology

Other Guidelines:

  • Papers must be 12–15 pages in length, (this would be roughly one page per area included in the report), 12-point font, double-spaced, including a cover page, table of contents, introduction, and body of the report, summary or conclusion, and works cited.
  • Even though this is not a scientific writing assignment and is mostly creative in nature, references are still very important. At least six authoritative, outside references are required (anonymous authors or web pages are not acceptable). These should be listed on the last page, titled Works Cited.
  • Appropriate citations are required.
  • All DeVry University policies are in effect, including the plagiarism policy.
  • Papers are due during Week 7 of this course.
  • Any questions about this paper may be discussed in the weekly Q&A Discussion topic.
  • This paper is worth 200 total points and will be graded on quality of research topic, quality of paper information, use of citations, grammar and sentence structure.

Milestones

A content outline for your paper is due byWeek 3, indicating how you plan to address the above criteria, and the primary sources of information you will use.(required)The name of the software you’ve chosen as the course project topic must be submitted in Week 1. (required)

Feedback on your topic selection and project outline will be provided by the instructor.

The completed project is due by the end of Week 7. (required)

TCO 1) Data compiled from individual patient data fields and formed into information about certain groups of patients is as example of:

Structured data

Unstructured data

Aggregate data

Affinity data

Question 2. Question :

(TCO 2) Which of the following is a gap in a physician office EHR environment where a document imaging system can be of value?

Chart conversion to backfill active patient records

Communicating with the hospital

Overcoming the hybrid record issue

Replace the practice management system

Question 3. Question :

(TCO 3) Which of the following enables point-of-care charting and positive patient identification while maintaining network connectivity:

Desktops at nursing stations

One terminal for every two hospital rooms

Personal digital assistant

Wireless computer on wheels

Question 4. Question :

(TCO 4) The Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act of 2000, also known as the E-SIGN bill, furthered what aspect of the EHR adoption process?

Shelter from Stark Laws

Allowed PHI to be transmitted via electronic means

Helped make electronic signatures legal

Has no effect on the EHR because it only addresses business models not healthcare

Question 5. Question :

(TCO 5) A key strategy to gain user involvement in an EHR is:

Assign as many users as possible to committees

Avoid discussing the EHR with users until close to go-live

Communicate with users frequently to educate and alleviate concerns

Require each user to take a course in the EHR being implemented from the vendor

:

Question 6. Question :

(TCO 6) What is the primary difference between a closed and an open system?

Closed systems are designed for use in secure environments whereas the open system can operate in any environment.

Closed systems do not interact with the environment while open systems are influenced by the environment.

A closed system is for internal use only while the open system works with the Internet.

A closed system costs money whereas the open system is free.

Question 7. Question :

(TCO 7) EHR steering committees are largely comprised of:

Consultants

IT staff

Vender staff

Volunteers from various departments

Question 8. Question :

(TCO 1) As discussed in the textbook, describe some of the consumer awareness and perceptions of the EHR?

Question 9. Question :

(TCO 2) Please describe Workflow Technology? What does it mean? What tasks can it perform?

Question 10. Question :

(TCO 3) What is a “Wet” signature, why is it required and what agency requires it?

Instructor Explanation: Chapter 3, p. 55. “Wet” signature relates to electronic signature on prescriptions for controlled substances. The signature must be with a pen on paper. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) requires it for controlled substances.

Question 11. Question :

(TCO 4) Describe the meaning of: Rules Engine and Smart Peripherals?

Theoretical Foundations in Nursing

QUESTION

Theoretical Foundations in Nursing Week 3 Nursing Theorist Video Reflection

  1. During weeks 3 and 6, you will complete a nursing theorist video analysis/reflection of one of the nursing theorist videos provided in the course. We highly recommend that you watch as many of these videos as you can throughout the course. This is a great opportunity for you to see and hear directly from the actual theorists that you are reading about in the text. Click on the Nursing Theorist Video Link in the main menu on the left to see the collection of videos.After watching one of the theorist videos, reflect about what you have learned. Compose a paper that addresses the following:
    1. Explain why you chose to watch this particular theorist’s video.
    2. Describe the parts of your personal philosophy where you agree or disagree with this theorist.
    3. Is there anything that surprised you in the video? If so, what surprised you?
    4. Would you recommend this video to another student? If so, why would you recommend it?
    5. What value did you receive from watching it?
    Your paper should be 2–3 pages in length, in APA format, typed in Times New Roman with 12-point font, and double-spaced with 1″ margins. If outside sources are used, they must be cited appropriately.Points Possible: 50
  2. By submitting this paper, you agree: (1) that you are submitting your paper to be used and stored as part of the SafeAssign™ services in accordance with the Blackboard Privacy Policy; (2) that your institution may use your paper in accordance with your institution’s policies; and (3) that your use of SafeAssign will be without recourse against Blackboard Inc. and its affiliates.

Case Study, End-of-Life Care

QUESTION

Case Study, Chapter 16, End-of-Life Care 1. Joe Clark, 79 years of age, is a male patient who is receiving hospice care for his terminal illnesses that include lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulm

Case Study, Chapter 16, End-of-Life Care

1. Joe Clark, 79 years of age, is a male patient who is receiving hospice care for his terminal illnesses that include lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). He developed bilateral pleural effusion (fluid that accumulates in the pleural space of each lung), which has compromised his lung expansion. He states that he is short of breath and feels anxious that the next breath will be his last. The patient is admitted to the hospital for a thoracentesis (an invasive procedure used to drain the fluid from the pleural space so the lung can expand). The thoracentesis is being used as a palliative measure to relieve the discomfort he is experiencing. Low dose morphine is ordered to provide relief from dyspnea or discomfort. The patient is prescribed Proventil (albuterol) inhaler 2 puffs per day, as needed, and Flovent (fluticasone propionate) inhaler 2 puffs twice a day. The patient has 2 L/min of oxygen ordered per nasal cannula as needed for comfort. 

  1. What nursing measures should the nurse use to manage the patient’s dyspnea?
  2. The patient complains that he has no appetite and struggles to eat and breathe. What nursing measures should the nurse implement to manage this physiologic response to the terminal illnesses?

2. Ms. Williams underwent a lobectomy for lung cancer 6 months ago, followed by treatment with radiation therapy and chemotherapy. On her most recent visit to the oncologist, she is told that despite the treatments, there is evidence of metastatic disease in her spine. The physician explains that there are no further treatment options, and refers Ms. Rogers to Hospice for continuing care. 

  1. What are the underlying principles of hospice?
  2. To be eligible for Medicare and Medicaid Hospice benefits, what information needs to be provided by Ms. Williams’ physician?
  3. Ms. Williams has severe back pain and is concerned whether the hospice will assist with her pain management.

Literature Evaluation

Question Description

Please see attachment of SAMPLE of Literature Evaluation Table based on PICOT statement Clostridium Difficile peer nursing articles

Literature Evaluation Table – Week 4

In nursing practice, accurate identification and application of research is essential to achieving successful outcomes. Being able to articulate the information and successfully summarize relevant peer-reviewed articles in a scholarly fashion helps to support the student’s ability and confidence to further develop and synthesize the progressively more complex assignments that constitute the components of the course change proposal capstone project.

For this assignment, the student will provide a synopsis of eight peer-reviewed articles from nursing journals using an evaluation table that determines the level and strength of evidence for each of the eight articles. The articles should be current within the last 5 years and closely relate to the PICOT statement developed earlier in this course. The articles may include quantitative research, descriptive analyses, longitudinal studies, or meta-analysis articles. A systematic review may be used to provide background information for the purpose or problem identified in the proposed capstone project. Use the “Literature Evaluation Table” resource to complete this assignment.

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and in-text citations and references should be presented using APA documentation guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

The purpose of this assignment is to select a topic related to information systems in healthcare from the list provided, research and analyze the topic, and describe how you will apply your newfound knowledge to your nursing practice.

QUESTION

INFORMATICS PAPER

Information Systems in Healthcare Paper

Guidelines

Purpose

The purpose of this assignment is to select a topic related to information systems in healthcare from the list provided, research and analyze the topic, and describe how you will apply your newfound knowledge to your nursing practice.

Course Outcomes

This assignment enables the student to meet one or more of the following Course Outcomes depending upon the topic selected:

CO#1: Describe patient-care technologies as appropriate to address the needs of a diverse patient population. (PO#1)

CO#2: Analyze data from all relevant sources, including technology, to inform the delivery of care. (PO#2)

CO#3: Define standardized terminology that reflects nursing’s unique contribution to patient outcomes. (PO#3)

CO#4: Investigate safeguards and decision-making support tools embedded in patient care technologies and information systems to support a safe practice environment for both patients and healthcare workers. (PO#4)

CO#5: Identify patient care technologies, information systems, and communication devices that support safe nursing practice. (PO#5)

CO#6: Discuss the principles of data integrity, professional ethics, and legal requirements related to data security, regulatory requirements, confidentiality, and client’s right to privacy. (PO#6)

CO#7: Examine the use of information systems to document interventions related to achieving nurse sensitive outcomes. (PO#7)

CO#8: Discuss the value of best evidence as a driving force to institute change in delivery of nursing care. (PO#8)

Points

This assignment is worth a total of 200 points.

Due Date

Your completed paper is due at the end of Week 4. Submit it to the Dropbox by Sunday at 11:59 p.m. MT. Post your questions to the weekly Q & A Forum. Contact your instructor if you need additional assistance. See the Course Policies regarding late assignments and academic integrity. Failure to submit your paper to the Dropbox on time will result in a deduction of points.

Topics

Select ONE of these topics for the focus of your paper:

·       Standard terminologies (CO3, CO8)

·       Decision-making support tools (CO4, CO8)

·       Patient education technology (CO5, CO8)

·       Data integrity, legal and ethical implications (CO7, CO8)

Directions

1.     You are to research, analyze, and write an APA-formatted scholarly paper about the topic that you have selected.

2.     Write an introduction that defines and describes the topic. Address what purpose the topic serves and how it impacts the delivery of healthcare in general, and nursing care in particular. Keep in mind that APA guidelines state you are not to use the heading of “Introduction,” but you should include it at the beginning of your paper.

3.     Search for scholarly sources and relevant websites. Include a minimum of two scholarly sources. The course textbook does not qualify as a scholarly source. Cite all sources in the body of the paper and include them in the References list following proper APA formatting.

4.     Provide one example of this topic. Describe the main features or aspects of the example with support from your sources.

5.     Describe an experience where the topic impacted you personally, either when you were receiving health care, or when you were providing nursing careRelate one positive aspect or one negative aspect of this experience and how it could have been improved.

6.     Write a conclusion that summarizes the topic, purpose and how your newfound insight will influence your nursing care.

7.     Use Microsoft Word to develop your paper. Use APA formatting. Refer to the Publication manual of the APA, 6th edition. Review the various APA documents included in this course and the Chamberlain Care Student Success Strategies (CCSSS) that can help you with your writing. Take advantage of the tutoring service, Smarthinking, which is linked from Tutor Source under the Course Home tab.

8.     The length of the paper should be a maximum of 4–5 pages, excluding the title page and the reference page. There should only be one small quote maximum in the paper.  Citations should primarily include summary and restatement.

NOTE: Review the section on Academic Honesty found in the Chamberlain Course Policies. All work must be original (in your own words) unless properly cited.

Grading Criteria

Social determinants of Health

QUESTION

Hello i need a good and positive comment related with this argument .A paragraph  with no more  90 words.

Re:Topic 2 DQ 1

Social determinants of Health are conditions in the places where people live, learn, work and play that affect a wide range of health risks and outcomes. (Center for Disease control (CDC), 2016).

Examples of social determinants are; availability of clean water and food resources, access to health care, language literacy, economic stability through jobs and education, exposure to crime and violence, cultural variety and social attitudes. (Healthy People, 2020). These factors, determine the well-being of individuals and their ability to prevent disease and promote healthy living.

Social determinants of health are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources throughout local communities, nations and the world. When there is more of the social factors that contribute to poor health such as exposure to crime and violence or reduction of the social factors contributing to good health in the community that is, limited access to clean water and food, poor access to health care etc. in the community, members of the community will be at great risk for illness.

Communicable disease chain demonstrates how a communicable disease is linked together by links of chain with each link representing a concept such as the agent, reservoir, portal of exit, mode of transmission, portal of entry and susceptible host.

Nurses can interrupt this infectious chain through educational awareness and prevention through vaccinations. (Healthy people, 2020). An example of communicable disease is influenza which is transmitted through droplets in the air and hand to mouth contact. This is easily transmitted in environments with poor ventilation.

To control communicable disease, a nurse should aim at the weakest link to break the communicable disease chain. Example, antibiotics would break the agent link with a strep throat infection and stop the disease before it spreads to someone else. A nurse should ensure patients take their prescribed antibiotics. Also, the importance of proper hand washing cannot be over-emphasized. A nurse that does not practice proper hand washing could become a mode of transmitting infectious agents during care of patients. It is required/expected of nurses to engage diligently in infection control measures such as hand-washing and proper use of personal protective equipment such as hand gloves, gowns/aprons etc.

Assisted living and home health care

QUESTION

assisted living and home health care

Course Project: Long-Term Care Facilities II

Working on the same two facilities that you identified in W3 Assignment 2 (assisted living and home health care) prepare a 8- to 10-page report in a Microsoft Word document including the following:

  • Describe the roles and responsibilities of the administration in each department of your chosen facilities.
  • Identify and list the sources of financing available to consumers for the various programs provided by your chosen facilities. Identify the key public and private sources of reimbursement available. Also discuss the role played by managed care and its impact on long-term care reimbursement.
  • Describe the various government and private resources available that assist in developing and maintaining quality improvement programs in your chosen facilities. Describe the ways in which quality and cost are controlled in your chosen facilities. Also discuss the ethical aspect of access to care in the facilities, including rationing.

Based on your observations and learning from the two facilities, discuss the changes brought in the long-term care system to make it reach full status as a competition-driven system. You may include the following points in your discussion:

  • Discuss the changes made in the control mechanisms (external and internal) in order to control the management, financing, and quality in the long-term care systems.
  • Discuss the changes taking place in long-term care reimbursement system in order to provide better reimbursement options both to consumers and providers.
  • Discuss the changes made in the efforts of providers to accommodate changing magnitude of the day-to-day needs of long-term care consumers.

Support your responses with examples.

Cite any sources in APA format.

Submission Details

Name your document SU_HSC3010_W5_A2_LastName_FirstInitial.doc.

In this Assignment, you will locate relevant existing research. You also will analyze this research using a tool helpful for analysis.

QUESTION

Architect Daniel Libeskind is credited with saying “To provide meaningful architecture is not to parody history, but to articulate it.” The suggestion is that his work does not copy the efforts of

Architect Daniel Libeskind is credited with saying “To provide meaningful architecture is not to parody history, but to articulate it.” The suggestion is that his work does not copy the efforts of others but relies on it.

Understanding the work of others is critically important to new work. Contributions to the nursing body of knowledge can happen when you are able to analyze and articulate the efforts of previous research. Research analysis skills are therefore critical tools for your toolbox.

In this Assignment, you will locate relevant existing research. You also will analyze this research using a tool helpful for analysis.

To Prepare:

Reflect on the strategies presented in the Resources this Module’s Learning Resources in support of locating and analyzing research.

 Read one peer-reviewed research article focused on a topic in your specialty field that interests you.

Review the article you selected and reflect on the professional practice use of theories/concepts described by the article.

The Assignment:

Using the “Module 4 | Part 4” section of your Academic Success and Professional Development Plan Template presented in the Resources, conduct an analysis of the elements of the research article you identified. Be sure to include the following:

Your topic of interest:  The effect of anxiety and depression on completion/withdrawal status in patients admitted to substance abuse detoxification program.

 References

Araujo, L., Goldberg, P., Eyma, J., Madhusoodanan, S., Buff, D. D., Shamim, K., & Brenner, R. (1996). The effect of anxiety and depression on completion/withdrawal status in patients admitted to substance abuse detoxification program. Journal Of Substance Abuse Treatment, 13(1), 61–66. Retrieved from https://search-ebscohost-com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mnh&AN=8699544&site=ehost-live&scope=site

A correctly formatted APA citation of the article you selected, along  A correctly formatted APA citation of t 

  • A correctly formatted APA citation of the article you selected, along with link or search details.
  • Identify a professional practice use of the theories/concepts presented in the article.
  • Analysis of the article using the “Research Analysis Matrix” section of the template
  • Write a 1-paragraph justification stating whether you would recommend this article to inform professional practice.
  • Write a 2- to 3-paragraph summary that you will add to your Academic Success and Professional Development Plan that includes the following:
    • Describe your approach to identifying and analyzing peer-reviewed research.
    • Identify at least two strategies that you would use that you found to be effective in finding peer-reviewed research.
    • Identify at least one resource you intend to use in the future to find peer-reviewed research.

Note: Add your work for this Assignment to the original document you began in the Module 1 Assignment, which was built from the Academic Success and Professional Development Plan Template.he article you selected, along with link or search details.

Identify a professional practice use of the theories/concepts presented in the article.

Analysis of the article using the “Research Analysis Matrix” section of the template

Write a 1-paragraph justification stating whether you would recommend this article to inform professional practice.

Write a 2- to 3-paragraph summary that you will add to your Academic Success and Professional Development Plan that includes the following:

Describe your approach to identifying and analyzing peer-reviewed research.

Identify at least two strategies that you would use that you found to be effective in finding peer-reviewed research.

Identify at least one resource you intend to use in the future to find peer-reviewed research.

Note: Add your work for this Assignment to the original document you began in the Module 1 Assignment, which was built from the Academic Success and Professional Development Plan Template.The effect of anxiety and depression o K., & Brenner, R. (1996). The effect of anxiety and depression on completion/withdrawal status in patients admitted to substance abuse detoxification program. Journal Of Substance Abuse Treatment, 13(1), 61–66. Retrieved from https://&AN=8699544&site=ehost-live&scA correctly formatted APA citation of the article you selected, along with link or search details.

Conduct research to help you define stress for nurses, provide context for stress in trauma units/hospitcal, and propose strategies for helping to manage, reduce, and/or eliminate stress for nurses.

Question Description

The year is 2022, and you are the Chief Nursing Officer at University Medical Center in Las Vegas. Congrats! You are making big bucks.

But there is a problem: your nurses are stressed out. And, as your job responsibilities include evaluating and improving working conditions for your nursing staff, you’ve got to implement a plan to help your nurses ease some of their stress so that the excellent trauma care your hospital is known for can continue. The CEO of the hospital has asked you to produce an APA style report that defines stress for nurses, provides context for trauma nurses/hosptials, and proposes evidence-based practices to help manage, reduce, and/or eliminate stress for the UMC nursing staff. So, you turn to the library databases and other appropriate scholarly and peer-reviewed research on nursing and stress to figure out some options for your staff.

For this assignment, you should conduct research to help you define stress for nurses, provide context for stress in trauma units/hospitcal, and propose strategies for helping to manage, reduce, and/or eliminate stress for nurses. Your final product should be 2000-3000 words (approximately 7-10 pages, excluding title page, abstract, and references) and utilize APA style.

As this assignment is a full draft but a “shitty draft,” your submission is not expected to be perfect! You will receive feedback from your instructor in regard to particular aspects of the assignment, and you will be required to revise before submitting your final draft.

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Grading Rubric


Your assignment will be graded upon the following criteria:

Exceptional(40 points)Satisfactory(32 Points)Needs Improvement(24 Points)Unsatisfactory(20 Points)
CriteriaFollows assignment requirements; demonstrates critical thought and original ideas; utilizes scholarly and peer-reviewed sources.Follows assignment requirements; demonstrates attention to ideas; utilizes scholarly and peer-reviewed sources.Demonstrates an attempt to follow assignment requirements; demonstrates basic understanding of articles but not critical thought or original ideas; majority of sources are not scholarly and/or peer-reviewedDoes not follow assignment requirements; sources do not demonstrate understanding of information literacy

Coordinate a health fair for older adults

HCS433 week4

1.You have been asked to coordinate a health fair for older adults in your community. You have 10 booths to fill with health education materials. Considering the information gathered in this chapter, list what you think are the 10 most important educational topics for this age group.

2.     What are some obstacles that may prevent older adults from utilizing mental health services? What are some mental health disorders older adults can be diagnosed with?

3.     What are the various housing options available to older persons?

4.     Are the stages of the health continuum dynamic or static?

5.     Locate the smoking cessation classes in your area, and find out what treatment is used. Ask the director of smoking cessation classes in your area what percentage of older people attend. In the director’s opinion, what is the success rate with elders? How does it compare with success rates for other age groups?

6.     Visit a shopping mall, drugstore, supermarket, or some other public place, and tally how many individuals have visible health problems, as well as their approximate ages.

7.     What health problem seems most common? Can you detect any difference in types and numbers of problems with age?

8.     Include the impact of the disease on the overall quality of the person’s life. Be sure to include the psychological, social, and economic effects. Assuming the individual in the case has a spouse, describe the impact on that family member. If you have a family member with one of the diseases discussed in this chapter, ask her or him for permission to conduct an interview and write up her or his case experience with chronic illness.